ICT in Education Toolkit

Tool 1.3 Mapping of ICT in Education

 
  Collection of Information
 

The Facilitation Team needs to collect existing documentation and information regarding the readiness of country/region for ICT-related interventions in education. It is not expected to generate new data.

1. Collection of Information

To map readiness for ICT-related interventions in education, you will need information regarding the following subjects:

  • Policies, plans and projects related to the ICT sector
  • Preparedness and capacity of the ICT sector
  • Policies, plans and projects related to ICTs in education
  • Preparedness and capacity of the education sector for effective ICT interventions. This includes information on hardware availability, quality of infrastructure and hardware and support for ICT interventions.
  • The way schools presently use ICTs for educational purposes

More details on the information needed is provided in the next sections.

There are three complementary ways to collect the necessary information:

 Collect documentation that contains the relevant information.

  • Examples of primary documents are: legislation, national plans, ICT reports and studies
  • Examples of secondary documents are: development program documents prepared for international agencies, reports of the U.N. and its agencies, and statistics reports.
  • Examples of web sites:
    • UNDP Human Development Reports
      http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/
    • World Bank Data and Statistics:
      http://www.worldbank.org/data/databytopic/databytopic.html
    • ITU reports and data:
      http://www.itu.int/home/index.html

Seek input from specialists individuals or institutions - in respective subjects. You may download any of the forms provided in the next sections and send it to the specialist requesting that it be completed and sent back to you.

Provide Questionnaire to specialists individuals or institutions - in respective subjects/regions via the Toolkit.

It is advisable to maintain a "bookshelf" of relevant documents for later reference. If any of the documents are in digital form, they may be uploaded and saved in the Team Bookshelf. Non-digital documents may be scanned and uploaded.


ICT Policies and Plans  No information available

If information is available, please complete.

Map Policies, Plans and Projects
1. Summarize policies and plans, such as deregulation plans, technology-related tax credits, special tariffs to support expansion of technology, etc.



2. List and summarize existing or recently initiated large-scale* ICT-related projects that have potential relevance to education (although they are not directly educational projects); e.g. expansion of telephone lines to areas served by schools.

* Large-scale projects are defined as countrywide, statewide, and regional projects

Data Collection Information
Data Source (if applicable)

Annotations on data

Additional comments

 
  Mapping Readiness of ICT at Country Level: ICT Policies and Plans
 


Step 1: Mapping ICT Policies and Plan

Extract from collected documents and expert input information related the policies, plans and projects related to the ICT sector. Summarize in the following form.

If you wish to upload the completed Print Form document to the Filing Cabinet:

  • Download the print form onto your hard drive, complete and save;
  • Go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool "
  • If you wish to replace a file, delete the old file first, and then upload the new version.
  • If you wish to have multiple versions of the same file, give each file a unique name, and follow the above process.


Preparedness of ICT Sector

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the ICT sector. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the ICT sector is not ready to support large-scale ICT-related interventions in education, and may require some reform.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

Parts of this Form draw on some aspects of Readiness for the Networked World: A Guide for Developing Countries. Available at http://www.cid.harvard.edu/ciditg/research/tools.html

Electricity Infrastructure
  Countrywide, infrastructure is old and maintenance is limited or nonexistent.

  In urban areas, infrastructure is old but maintained.

  In most areas, infrastructure is reliable most of the time.

  In most areas, infrastructure is being upgraded.

  Countrywide, telecommunications infrastructure is being expanded or renovated.


Telecommunications Infrastructure
  Countrywide, telephone coverage is limited or nonexistent.

  In urban areas, more than half of the domestic phone calls can be completed successfully with dial-up modem transfer speeds of no more than 14.4.Kbps can be supported. However, in non-urban areas, telecommunications infrastructure is precarious.

  In most areas, domestic phone connections are frequently completed and of regular quality; dial-up modem transfer speeds of 28.8.Kbps can be supported.

  Expansion and/or renovation of phone lines are occuring for most of the country. In most areas, dial-up model transfer of 56 Kbps is supported.

  Countrywide, cable modem, DSL, and wireless solutions are available or being made available in most areas.


Technology Availability
  Radio is the only technology available throughout the country, including rural areas.

  Radio and television are available throughout the country, including rural areas, but computers are rare or nonexistent in most areas.

  Radio and television are available throughout the country; computers are common in urban areas but rare in rural areas; Internet connection is either nonexistent or expensive.

  Radio, television and computers are common all over the country, including in rural areas (even if through computer centers); Internet connection is limited.

  ICTs (radio, television, computers, Internet connection) are available countrywide.


Quality of Telephone Service
  Telephone mainlines may take years to be installed; repairs may take weeks or months to be completed; no computer technicians are available for repairs or troubleshooting.

  Telephone mainlines may take up to one year to be installed; repairs are slow but completed within a month; a few places offer technical support for computers.

  Telephone mainlines can be installed within a couple of weeks; telephone and electrical companies offer regular maintenance services; technical support for computers is expensive but easily available.

  Telephone mainlines are installed within one week; maintenance is part of the service contract; technical support for computers is of no problem; a small number of network administrators is available for support.

  Telephone mainlines are installed in a couple of days; maintenance is part of service contract and obtained 24 hours, 7 days a week through phone, Internet or fax; technical support for computers and network administrators is available.


Computer Technical Support
  No computer technicians are available for repairs or troubleshooting.

  Few places offer technical support for computers.

  Technical support for computers is expensive but easily available.

  Technical support for computers is readily available; a small number of network administrators is available for support.

  Technical support for computers is readily available; network administrators are available.


Cost of Basic Services
  Electricity, telephone and Internet rates are too expensive.

  Electricity and telephone rates are reasonable, but Internet rates are prohibitive.

  Electricity and telephone rates are very reasonable, but Internet use via local ISPs is too expensive for most users, including schools.

  Electricity and telephone rates are within the reach of most organizations and individuals. The price of Internet access via dial-up is accessible to most organizations, but not to individuals; high-speed connections are expensive.

  Rates for electricity, telephone calls, and Internet usage, including bandwidth solutions (cable, DSL), are accessible to all organizations and most individuals.


Regulatory Framework
  The telecommunication sector is very weak or limited; taxations or import/export tariff are obstacles for growth.

  The telecommunication sector is a private or state-owned monopoly; there are no regulatory provisions for universal access and no plans exist to open services to competition.

  The telecommunication sector is a private or state-owned monopoly; provisions for universal access exist but are not enforced; plans are under way to liberalize the system.

  The telecommunication sector is liberalized, but regulatory structures make competition difficult.

  There is a vibrant competition among telecommunication carriers, and licensing agreements encourage new groups to enter the market and bring innovation.


Availability of Expertise
  There are no courses for television or computer technicians, computer programmers or network administrators, or plans to open such courses.

  There are few courses for technicians, but not for programmers, network administrators and engineers.

  Training courses are multiplying, but courses for high-level personnel (software developers, programmers, experts in new languages etc) are still rare.

  Supply is becoming higher than demand; finding middle-level technicians is not difficult, but the high level personnel are still scarce or too expensive.

  Supply is much higher than demand; finding personnel with expertise and experience to work in ICT projects at all levels is not difficult.

Preparedness of ICT Sector

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the ICT sector. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the ICT sector is not ready to support large-scale ICT-related interventions in education, and may require some reform.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

Parts of this Form draw on some aspects of Readiness for the Networked World: A Guide for Developing Countries. Available at http://www.cid.harvard.edu/ciditg/research/tools.html

Electricity Infrastructure
  Countrywide, infrastructure is old and maintenance is limited or nonexistent.

  In urban areas, infrastructure is old but maintained.

  In most areas, infrastructure is reliable most of the time.

  In most areas, infrastructure is being upgraded.

  Countrywide, telecommunications infrastructure is being expanded or renovated.


Telecommunications Infrastructure
  Countrywide, telephone coverage is limited or nonexistent.

  In urban areas, more than half of the domestic phone calls can be completed successfully with dial-up modem transfer speeds of no more than 14.4.Kbps can be supported. However, in non-urban areas, telecommunications infrastructure is precarious.

  In most areas, domestic phone connections are frequently completed and of regular quality; dial-up modem transfer speeds of 28.8.Kbps can be supported.

  Expansion and/or renovation of phone lines are occuring for most of the country. In most areas, dial-up model transfer of 56 Kbps is supported.

  Countrywide, cable modem, DSL, and wireless solutions are available or being made available in most areas.


Technology Availability
  Radio is the only technology available throughout the country, including rural areas.

  Radio and television are available throughout the country, including rural areas, but computers are rare or nonexistent in most areas.

  Radio and television are available throughout the country; computers are common in urban areas but rare in rural areas; Internet connection is either nonexistent or expensive.

  Radio, television and computers are common all over the country, including in rural areas (even if through computer centers); Internet connection is limited.

  ICTs (radio, television, computers, Internet connection) are available countrywide.


Quality of Telephone Service
  Telephone mainlines may take years to be installed; repairs may take weeks or months to be completed; no computer technicians are available for repairs or troubleshooting.

  Telephone mainlines may take up to one year to be installed; repairs are slow but completed within a month; a few places offer technical support for computers.

  Telephone mainlines can be installed within a couple of weeks; telephone and electrical companies offer regular maintenance services; technical support for computers is expensive but easily available.

  Telephone mainlines are installed within one week; maintenance is part of the service contract; technical support for computers is of no problem; a small number of network administrators is available for support.

  Telephone mainlines are installed in a couple of days; maintenance is part of service contract and obtained 24 hours, 7 days a week through phone, Internet or fax; technical support for computers and network administrators is available.


Computer Technical Support
  No computer technicians are available for repairs or troubleshooting.

  Few places offer technical support for computers.

  Technical support for computers is expensive but easily available.

  Technical support for computers is readily available; a small number of network administrators is available for support.

  Technical support for computers is readily available; network administrators are available.


Cost of Basic Services
  Electricity, telephone and Internet rates are too expensive.

  Electricity and telephone rates are reasonable, but Internet rates are prohibitive.

  Electricity and telephone rates are very reasonable, but Internet use via local ISPs is too expensive for most users, including schools.

  Electricity and telephone rates are within the reach of most organizations and individuals. The price of Internet access via dial-up is accessible to most organizations, but not to individuals; high-speed connections are expensive.

  Rates for electricity, telephone calls, and Internet usage, including bandwidth solutions (cable, DSL), are accessible to all organizations and most individuals.


Regulatory Framework
  The telecommunication sector is very weak or limited; taxations or import/export tariff are obstacles for growth.

  The telecommunication sector is a private or state-owned monopoly; there are no regulatory provisions for universal access and no plans exist to open services to competition.

  The telecommunication sector is a private or state-owned monopoly; provisions for universal access exist but are not enforced; plans are under way to liberalize the system.

  The telecommunication sector is liberalized, but regulatory structures make competition difficult.

  There is a vibrant competition among telecommunication carriers, and licensing agreements encourage new groups to enter the market and bring innovation.


Availability of Expertise
  There are no courses for television or computer technicians, computer programmers or network administrators, or plans to open such courses.

  There are few courses for technicians, but not for programmers, network administrators and engineers.

  Training courses are multiplying, but courses for high-level personnel (software developers, programmers, experts in new languages etc) are still rare.

  Supply is becoming higher than demand; finding middle-level technicians is not difficult, but the high level personnel are still scarce or too expensive.

  Supply is much higher than demand; finding personnel with expertise and experience to work in ICT projects at all levels is not difficult.

 
  Mapping Readiness of ICT at Country Level: Preparedness of ICT Sector
 


Step 2: SURVEY - Preparedness of ICT Sector

Mapping the degree of preparedness of the ICT sector may be achieved by completing a questionnaire that provides a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the ICT sector. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the ICT sector is not ready to support large-scale ICT-related interventions in education, and may require some reform.

It is recommended that the questionnaire be completed by a group designated by the Facilitation Team that is quite knowledgeable of the ICT sector. This can be done in one of two ways:

The Facilitation Team sends the survey through the Toolkit to designated individuals who will complete it online. The Facilitation Team is able to view the results and save them.

The Team can download the questionnaire form and send it to the designated persons to be completed and returned. The Team can then enter the responses into the electronic forms and save the results for further use.


*This section is based on Readiness for the Networked World: A Guide for Developing Countries. Available at http://www.cid.harvard.edu/ciditg/research/tools.html



Mapping of ICT-in-Education Policies, Plans and Projects  No information available

If information is available, please complete.



Summarize policies and plans that specifically address the use of ICTs to enhance teaching and learning



List and summarize large-scale* ICT-related projects that are already being implemented or will be soon implemented regarding ICTs in education.

* Large-scale projects are defined as countrywide, statewide, and regional projects

Data Collection Information
Data Source (if applicable)

Annotations on data

Additional comments

 
  Mapping of ICT-in-Education Policies, Plans and Projects
 


Step 1: Mapping of ICT-in-Education Policies, Plans and Projects

Extract from collected documents and expert input information related the policies, plans and projects related to the ICT sector. Summarize in the following form:

If you wish to upload the completed Print Form document to the Filing Cabinet:

  • Download the print form onto your hard drive, complete and save;
  • Go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool "
  • If you wish to replace a file, delete the old file first, and then upload the new version.
  • If you wish to have multiple versions of the same file, give each file a unique name, and follow the above process.


Preparedness of Education Sector for ICT Interventions

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the education sector for effective ICT interventions. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the pre-requisites for effective ICTs in education are not in place, and action is needed to ensure effective returns on any ICT-related intervention and investment.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

Hardware Availability
  All schools in the country/region have at least one radio; television sets in schools are rare or inexistent.
  All schools in the country/region have radio; television sets are not common but can be available if needed; computers are rare or nonexistent.
  The majority of schools in the country/region have access to radio and television; computers are limited to wealthy areas or magnet schools.
  Radio, television and computers are found in most schools in the country, but the ratio of computer to students is very low (e.g. 1 computer for 50 students); Internet connection is nonexistent or limited to wealthy areas and specially designated schools.
  The majority of schools in the country have access to radio, television and computers. The number of computers per student is increasing; Internet connectivity is still limited but is expanding.

Quality of Infrastructure and Hardware
  In the majority of the schools, radio reception is of poor quality; transmission of image or sound via phone lines is not available.
  The majority of the schools have capabilities to receive good radio transmission but nothing else (television transmission is precarious; phone connections are unreliable).
  The majority of schools have color television and computers that are old (old software); dial-up connections are either unavailable or support only simple text and graphics.
  The majority of schools have color television, computers with CD-ROM and capability for transfer speeds of up to 56 Kps. for text, graphics, and sound.
  The majority of schools have capabilities to maintain high-speed transfers (cable, DSL, etc) that offer complex graphics and images, video, and audio.

Support/financing for ICT projects
  No public funds are in place to help schools finance ICT-related projects.
  Public funds to finance ICTs in education projects are insufficient.
  Public funds to finance ICT-related projects are available and schools benefit from them easily.
  ICT-related projects are well supported by public and private funds.
Preparedness of Education Sector for ICT Interventions

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the education sector for effective ICT interventions. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the pre-requisites for effective ICTs in education are not in place, and action is needed to ensure effective returns on any ICT-related intervention and investment.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

Hardware Availability
  All schools in the country/region have at least one radio; television sets in schools are rare or inexistent.
  All schools in the country/region have radio; television sets are not common but can be available if needed; computers are rare or nonexistent.
  The majority of schools in the country/region have access to radio and television; computers are limited to wealthy areas or magnet schools.
  Radio, television and computers are found in most schools in the country, but the ratio of computer to students is very low (e.g. 1 computer for 50 students); Internet connection is nonexistent or limited to wealthy areas and specially designated schools.
  The majority of schools in the country have access to radio, television and computers. The number of computers per student is increasing; Internet connectivity is still limited but is expanding.

Quality of Infrastructure and Hardware
  In the majority of the schools, radio reception is of poor quality; transmission of image or sound via phone lines is not available.
  The majority of the schools have capabilities to receive good radio transmission but nothing else (television transmission is precarious; phone connections are unreliable).
  The majority of schools have color television and computers that are old (old software); dial-up connections are either unavailable or support only simple text and graphics.
  The majority of schools have color television, computers with CD-ROM and capability for transfer speeds of up to 56 Kps. for text, graphics, and sound.
  The majority of schools have capabilities to maintain high-speed transfers (cable, DSL, etc) that offer complex graphics and images, video, and audio.

Support/financing for ICT projects
  No public funds are in place to help schools finance ICT-related projects.
  Public funds to finance ICTs in education projects are insufficient.
  Public funds to finance ICT-related projects are available and schools benefit from them easily.
  ICT-related projects are well supported by public and private funds.
 
  Mapping Preparedness of the Education Sector for ICT Interventions
 


Step 2: Mapping Preparedness of the Education Sector for ICT Interventions

Mapping the degree of preparedness of the education sector for ICT interventions may be achieved by completing a questionnaire that provides a rough profile of the preparedness and capacity of the education sector for effective ICT intervention. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the pre-requisites for effective ICTs in education are not in place, and action is needed to ensure effective returns on any ICT-related intervention and investment.

It is recommended that the questionnaire be completed by a group designated by the Facilitation Team that is quite knowledgeable of the ICT situation in the education sector. This can be done in one of two ways:

The Facilitation Team sends the survey through the Toolkit to designated individuals who will complete it online. The Facilitation Team is able to view the results and save them.

The Team can download the questionnaire form and send it to the designated persons to be completed and returned. The Team can then enter the responses into the electronic forms and save the results for further use.



Present Education Usage of ICTs

Mapping the present education usage of ICTs may be achieved by completing a questionnaire provides a rough profile of the way schools use ICTs for educational purposes. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the present practice of utilizing ICTs in education is not conducive for an efficient use of ICTs and may require some reform to maximize the returns from future investment in ICTs.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

1. Alignment between Technology and Instruction
ICTs are only used as voluntary enrichment materials.
ICTs are used by teachers to supplement conventional classroom teaching.
Beyond the above, ICTs are used by teachers to teach parts of a lesson.
Beyond the above, ICTs are used by students to learn certain parts of the curriculum.
In addition to the above, students use the technology to participate in national or international projects and competitions.

2. School Management
Schools do not use technology for management of their personnel or student data.
Schools are storing their data electronically but have no capability to analyze them.
Schools are storing and analyzing the data electronically to inform decisions about academic programs or personnel.
Schools are storing and sharing data with other schools and central offices (local, states or national).
In addition to the above, a central office maintains a database for all schools in the region. The data are used for decision-making purposes (e.g. ranking schools by level of poverty for funding purposes; collecting and analyzing standardized tests and providing results to the schools).

3. Technical Support for Schools
Technical support is not available for lack of skilled personnel in the region.
Technical support is available through contracts between the schools and private providers.
Technical support is available from a central office or vendor but only when a problem arises; schools may wait more than one week before support is provided.
Technical support is available from the central office or vendor on an ongoing basis (e.g. once a month); if any emergencies occur, it may take a week before support is provided.
Technical support is available on an as-needed-basis all working days and hours; most troubleshooting can occur promptly through conversation with the technician (over the phone, e-mail etc); in person support takes no more than 1 or 2 days to be obtained.
Present Education Usage of ICTs

Mapping the present education usage of ICTs may be achieved by completing a questionnaire provides a rough profile of the way schools use ICTs for educational purposes. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the present practice of utilizing ICTs in education is not conducive for an efficient use of ICTs and may require some reform to maximize the returns from future investment in ICTs.

Under each profile indicator, there are five descriptors that fall along a continuum. Select one descriptor that best describes the current situation, although it may not represent the desired or prescribed goal.

1. Alignment between Technology and Instruction
ICTs are only used as voluntary enrichment materials.
ICTs are used by teachers to supplement conventional classroom teaching.
Beyond the above, ICTs are used by teachers to teach parts of a lesson.
Beyond the above, ICTs are used by students to learn certain parts of the curriculum.
In addition to the above, students use the technology to participate in national or international projects and competitions.

2. School Management
Schools do not use technology for management of their personnel or student data.
Schools are storing their data electronically but have no capability to analyze them.
Schools are storing and analyzing the data electronically to inform decisions about academic programs or personnel.
Schools are storing and sharing data with other schools and central offices (local, states or national).
In addition to the above, a central office maintains a database for all schools in the region. The data are used for decision-making purposes (e.g. ranking schools by level of poverty for funding purposes; collecting and analyzing standardized tests and providing results to the schools).

3. Technical Support for Schools
Technical support is not available for lack of skilled personnel in the region.
Technical support is available through contracts between the schools and private providers.
Technical support is available from a central office or vendor but only when a problem arises; schools may wait more than one week before support is provided.
Technical support is available from the central office or vendor on an ongoing basis (e.g. once a month); if any emergencies occur, it may take a week before support is provided.
Technical support is available on an as-needed-basis all working days and hours; most troubleshooting can occur promptly through conversation with the technician (over the phone, e-mail etc); in person support takes no more than 1 or 2 days to be obtained.
 
  Mapping Present Usage of ICTs in Education
 


Step 3: Mapping Present Usage of ICTs in Education

Mapping the present education usage of ICTs may be achieved by completing a questionnaire provides a rough profile of the way schools use ICTs for educational purposes. Such a profile will help in making decisions for ICTs in education that are realistic and appropriate. On the other hand, the profile may indicate that the present practice of utilizing ICTs in education is not conducive for an efficient use of ICTs and may require some reform to maximize the returns from future investment in ICTs.

It is recommended that the questionnaire be completed by a group designated by the Facilitation Team that is quite knowledgeable about the ICT situation in the education sector. Such group may include supervisors (inspectors), school principals and teachers. This can be done in one of two ways:

The Facilitation Team sends the survey through the Toolkit to designated individuals who will complete it online. The Facilitation Team is able to view the results and save them.

The Team can download the questionnaire form and send it to the designated persons to be completed and returned. The Team can then enter the responses into the electronic forms and save the results for further use.


 
  OUTPUT OF THIS TOOL
 

The application of this tool generates the following files:

These files are saved in the Country's Filing Cabinet. They may be accessed anytime from the Filing Cabinet or from the above list by clicking on the specific file.

If any documents have been uploaded to the Team Bookshelf, they may be accessed at anytime.

Please go back to Toolkit Map/Home to continue to the next Toolbox.