ICT in Education Toolkit

Dynamics of Change at the System Level

Decision Making Modality

For each decision making element spectrum, there are four positions that fall along the continuum. Select one position that best describes the current decision making practice, although it may not represent every policy/plan decision.



Problem-oriented





Goal-oriented
On one extreme of this continuum the decision aims to solve a particular problem identified by decision makers. On the other extreme the policy/plan decision is derived from a vision or goal set by legislation or authorities without necessarily addressing an existing problem.


Bottoms-up





Top-down
On one extreme of this continuum the decision is the result of a process of discussions and negotiations with interest groups and stakeholders. On the other extreme the decision is made by the educational authorities and passed down to stakeholders.


Decentralized





Centralized
On one extreme of the continuum decisions are made close to where actual implementation is to take place. On the other extreme, decisions are made at the central level.


Incremental





Comprehensive
On one extreme the preference is to make incremental decisions, focusing on a limited sub sector or area of concern and allowing for experimentation and adjustment. On the other extreme the preference is for comprehensive large-scale decisions that deal with the whole inter-related system allowing for economies of scale, high impact, and long-term solutions.

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  Decision Making Modality
 

Step 1: Decision Making Modality

Decision making for policy formulation, planning and implementation, is a complex and multi-faceted process. A decision making modality is usually a composite of a number of characteristics that fall over corresponding spectrums.

The Facilitation Team draws on existing information and knowledge of the system and decision making preferences to complete the following FORM.

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Degree of Innovation of Existing Policies and Plans for Introducing ICTs in Education


Select one position on this spectrum that best describes the current policies/plans, although it may not represent every situation.


Traditional/close to existing situation





Innovative/drastic change

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  Degree of Innovation
 

Step 2: Degree of Innovation


Review the following file from Tool 1.3  Policies and strategic plans for ICTs in Education

On the basis of the summary information in the file, Policies and strategic plans for ICTs in Education, below, complete the following questionnaire.

 Select one position that best describes the current policies/plans, although it may not represent every policy/plan.

Degree of Preparedness of the ICT Sector to Support ICTs for Education

Select one position that best describes degree of preparedness of the ICT sector to support ICTs for education.

  The country is not ready for ICT projects; before the project can be implemented, foundation work is needed.
  The country is moving toward readiness but foundation work must be an important part of any ICT project; in addition, considerable differences exist across regions and they must be taken into account.
  The country is moving toward readiness; expansion is already occurring; projects using simple technology (e.g. radio, television) can be implemented without much foundation work.
  The country is ready for ICT projects; some gaps still exist but they will not deter the implementation of any ICT project.

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  Degree of Preparedness for ICT
 

Step 3: Degree of Preparedness for ICT

Review the following file from Tool 1.3: Preparedness of the ICT Sector

On the basis of the profile in the file, Preparedness of the ICT Sector below, complete the following questionnaire: Select one position that best describes degree of preparedness of the ICT sector to support ICTs for education.


Attitude Survey of Decision Makers and Planners


Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Technology projects should be avoided because they are complex and expensive.
Technology in education means putting computers in schools.
Technology is the solution for our educational problems.
The Internet is a dangerous place and our children should not be allowed access to it.
We need technology in schools to become competitive in the global market no matter how we use it.
Technology projects do not help women because they are generally afraid of technology.
Teachers are against technology and will not use it.
Technology in schools is a waste of money; we can solve our education problems without it.
We have not the appropriate infrastructure for a technology project.
The costs of connectivity are prohibitive; therefore, technology projects are not an option for us.
If we use technology, our children will be educated by machines instead of real teachers.
Computers or television in classroom will distract the students.
Books have all information that children and teachers need; the rest is luxury.
Low technology projects, such as radio, are outdated and out-of-question
Put a computer in the classroom and soon the children know what to do with it.
Attitude Survey of Decision Makers and Planners


Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Technology projects should be avoided because they are complex and expensive.
Technology in education means putting computers in schools.
Technology is the solution for our educational problems.
The Internet is a dangerous place and our children should not be allowed access to it.
We need technology in schools to become competitive in the global market no matter how we use it.
Technology projects do not help women because they are generally afraid of technology.
Teachers are against technology and will not use it.
Technology in schools is a waste of money; we can solve our education problems without it.
We have not the appropriate infrastructure for a technology project.
The costs of connectivity are prohibitive; therefore, technology projects are not an option for us.
If we use technology, our children will be educated by machines instead of real teachers.
Computers or television in classroom will distract the students.
Books have all information that children and teachers need; the rest is luxury.
Low technology projects, such as radio, are outdated and out-of-question
Put a computer in the classroom and soon the children know what to do with it.
 
  Attitude Toward ICT-in-Education
 

Step 4: Attitude Toward ICT-in-Education

The purpose of this section is to provide a rough indication of the way decision makers perceive the importance and potential of ICTs for educational purposes. Such information is important in making decisions for ICTs in education. On the other hand, these attitudes may indicate the need for dialogue, orientation and training before embarking on ICT-enhancing interventions.

To measure the attitudes and perceptions decision makers and planners have towards technologies for education, select a small representative sample of decision makers and planners and send them an attitude survey which they can fill out electronically. The Tool will summarize the results and make them available to you electronically.



 
  Summary
 

Summary

The Tool summarizes your input regarding the four elements of the dynamics of change.

Dynamics for change at the system level (Summary)