ICT in Education Toolkit

Tool 5.2 Master Plan

  1. The ICT-Intervention Program

This Part is composed of the ICT-Intervention Program generated in Tool 2.2. It includes two parts:

1.1  Background and Present Situation
This section sets the stage for the proposed project(s) and makes an indirect justification for the ICT intervention(s). It draws on the outputs from Toolbox 1.

1.2  Proposed Projects
This Part is composed of as many sections as there are projects. Each section presents information about the corresponding Project and includes

  • Description of ICT intervention Project
  • Detailed assessment of the Project
  • Graphic profile of the Project


1. Download from the Filing Cabinet Tool 2.2 the file: ICT Policy Program Decision.

2. Save it under the Title: "Master Plan-Part 1" and edit it by adding a title:

Master Plan
Part 1. The ICT-Intervention Program


3. Go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool " Upload the file as: Part 1: ICT-Intervention Program.


  2. Integrated Implementation Plan

This Part of the Master Plan integrates summaries of the different components of planning for implementation generated by the different tools in Toolbox 3-5, into a comprehensive implementation plan.  This Part is compiled automatically from the outputs of corresponding Tools.

For more details about the plans, particularly as they relate to Program institutions, planners need to go back to the corresponding files in the Filing Cabinet of Toolbox 3-5 and download them.

This Part includes five sections:

2.1 Geographic Areas and Institutions
2.2 Infrastructure
2.3 Hardware
2.4 Contentware
2.5 Personnel Orientation and training

The Integrated Implementation Plan may be viewed by going to the OUTPUT Section of this Tool, or by going to the Filing Cabinet Tool 5.2: Part 2 Integrated Implementation Plan

  3. Implementation Cost

This Part of the Master Plan presents a summary of the costs in two ways:

  • Summary cost of the whole ICT program at the national level
  • Total costs broken down over time

This section is compiled automatically from the outputs of Tool 5.1

Costs per institution and geographic area may be retrieved from the OUTPUT section of Tool 5.1 or the Filing Cabinet-Tool 5.1.

This part of the Master Plan may be viewed by going to the OUTPUT Section of this Tool, or by going to the Filing Cabinet Tool 5.2 : Part 3- Implementation Cost

  4. Implementation Timetable

The timetable for the implementation of the different components of the implementation plan, should reflect the facts of the ICT program in terms of  elements and tentative time necessary to implement each element. It is important to keep in mind the following considerations:

  • Adequate time must be given to each task, otherwise, during implementation there will be time overrun which will effect other tasks. Also this may generate cost overrun.
  • Tasks should not be initiated except when pre-requisites are completed and co-requisites are also initiated. For example, hardware should not be planned for installation before infrastructure is in place. Also if the Project includes a component of production of contentware, this component may take two years to complete. If computers are acquired and installed a long time before contentware is ready, then the installed computers are wasting some of their shelf lives even before they are utilized. Another example: Training of teachers should not be initiated before enough contentware is acquired or created, to use as materials for hands-on training.
  • When a component is necessary to have in place, adequate "pre" time should be planned for to cover planning, design of component, acquisition and application. For example, if trained teachers have to be ready  at the beginning of year 2 of the ICT Program, the Planning Team should work backwards to reserve time for developing training curriculum and materials, identifying trainers, having facilities in place, and training the teachers. This may take six months to achieve.

A sample timetable is provided to demonstrate the tasks and hypothetical times. (Print-based Form below)

To generate a timetable, download the sample timetable and modify it to fit your plans. Save it as " Part 4- Timetable" and upload it into the Filing Cabinet Tool 5.2

You may also use an Excel spreadsheet to construct the timetable. Save it as "Part 4- Timetable" and upload it into the Filing Cabinet Tool 5.2

  • Go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool "
  • If you wish to replace a file, delete the old file first, and then upload the new version.

When specialized Teams work out the details of the plans generated in Toolboxes 3-5, they will be able to construct a more detailed timetable. We suggest an Excel spreadsheet for each of those detailed plans. Once constructed, they can be saved in the Filing Cabinet.

  5. Implementation Management

This Part of the Tool provides a framework for the effective management of the implementation of the above elements of the master plan taking into consideration:

          The prevailing context scope and features of the project, prevailing decision making modalities, experience with innovations, and acceptability of change

          Organizational and institutional parameters

          Change management in terms of extent of acceptability of change, risk assessment, and change facilitation strategies.

To prepare this framework, download the FORM below, use it as a guide for deliberations among Team members and other experts, and then complete it. Save it as "Part 5 - Implementation Management" , then go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool " and upload upload the file..

The FORM contains three sections:

          Management Needs

          Organizational Management Framework

          Management of Change

o         Risk  Assessment

o         Strategy for Risk Mitigation and Change Facilitation

Guidelines for applying each section of the FORM

Management Needs

Planning for management of the ICT Program is dependent on the scope and features of the project as well as on the general decision making environment and acceptability for change.

1.       Review the elements of the ICT Program in Part 1 of the Plan and summarize management related issues, by completing the subsection:  Management-Related Issues in ICT Program

2.       On the basis of the content of the ICT Program and the summary of Management-Related Issues in Project, compile the list of Required Implementation Management Personnel for a successful implementation of the Program.

Organizational Management Framework

Find out the present organizational and institutional structure for planning and implementation of ICT projects or project components. To summarize results of review, complete the subsection: Present Structure for Planning and Implementation of ICT Interventions

 If there is an organizational diagram showing where ICT projects are managed, you can scan and upload to Team Bookshelf.

Next outline an organizational framework for the management of the ICT Project, in light of the information summarized in:

  • Management-Related Issues in Project
  • Required Implementation Management Personnel
  • Present Structure for Planning and Implementation of ICT Interventions

The following considerations should be taken into account:

  • The management of the ICT Project should be commensurate with the scale and complexity of the Project
  • The management of the ICT Project should address the different levels of implementation (institutions, geographic areas, and central levels)
  • Effective implementation depends on the existence of a manager/leader who has full authority and responsibility for the Project
  • Depending on the scope of the Project, there should be a management team to support the Manager and represent the different implementation functions identified above.
  • The Implementation Unit should, to the extent possible, correspond to an existing one. If the existing structure is not adequate it is better to improve it rather than bypass it and create a dichotomy that is usually a prescription for continuous tension and conflict.
  • The Manager and Management Team should have access to appropriate decision makers and established lines of communication with other parts of the education system.
  • There should be a smooth transition between the Facilitation Team that is applying this Toolkit and the Management Team.
  • The ideal situation is for the Facilitation Team to be incorporated, fully or partially, into the management structure.
  • The Organizational Management Framework should be discussed and endorsed by other parts of the education sector at central and regional levels.

After necessary deliberations, summarize your proposals by completing the subsection: Organizational Management Framework. This subsection contains items that usually constitute an organizational framework. Some items may not be relevant to this particular situation, and other items nay need to be added.

Management of Change

ICT Interventions are usually innovative inputs into the status quo. They frequently involve change not only in the delivery of educational services but also in the general educational policies and approaches. Many times they create disequilibrium in the prevailing educational culture and practices, which may lead to opposition and resistance of the Project. It is, therefore, important to keep in mind that the management of implementation of an ICT intervention also means the management of change. Unless this notion is recognized early in the process and planned for, the implementation of the Program may be undermined by forces resistant to change. It is also important to note that groups opposed to a particular change are not necessarily "backward" or "conservative" or "irrational." They may be very rational about their opposition, unwilling to take risks with uncertain policies, or unconvinced of the value of the innovation.

Management of change involves:

  • Analysis of prevailing dynamics for change
  • Risk assessment
  • Strategies for facilitation of change

Step 1. Download from FILING CABINET- Tool 1.4 the following files:

  • Dynamics for change at the system level (summary)
  • Dynamics for change at the school level (Summary)

Review these files for prevailing decision making modalities, experience with innovations, and acceptance of change.

Step 2. Make an assessment of the uncertainties associated with the different elements and phases of the Program. No ICT intervention is risk free. The same is true of any ICT-free policy. A decision not to integrate ICTs into education carries a degree of risk with it.

The degree of risk may be attributed to a variety of factors including but not limited to:

  • Uncertainty about the value of an intervention
  • Possible problems with implementability
  • Cultural and social resistance
  • Lack of confidence in the institutions or individuals involved
  • Lack of ability to implement or manage project
  • Uncertainty about the desirability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the affordability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the sustainability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the usability of the intervention
  • Doubts about the value-added of the intervention in comparison with the additional costs involved.

The Team should study once again the different elements of the Integrated Implementation Plan, and assess the degree of risk taken with each element in light of the factors cited above. Summarize the results of deliberations by completing subsection: Risk Assessment.

Step 3. Formulate a strategy to mitigate risks and facilitate change in light of the information retrieved or generated in Steps 1 and 2.

An indicative outline of the strategy is provided in subsection: Strategy for Lowering of Risks and Facilitation of Change . Make the necessary changes and additions to it.


The application of this tool generates the following files:

These files are saved in the Country's Filing Cabinet. They may be accessed anytime from the Filing Cabinet or from the above list by clicking on the specific file.

If any documents have been uploaded to the Team Bookshelf, they may be accessed at anytime.

Please go back to Toolkit Map/Home to continue to the next Toolbox.