No matter how well the ICT interventions were designed and no matter how precise the implementation plans were drawn, in most cases there will be problems and surprises during implementation. It is, therefore, essential to put in place as early as possible, mechanisms to monitor the process of implementation. Tool 6.1 recommends three classes of monitoring and evaluation:
- Class 1- Degree of Implementation (as intended)
- Class 2 - Degree of Proper Use (as intended)
- Class 3 - Degree of User Satisfaction
These classes of evaluation should help identify issues faced during implementation. The flow chart below summarizes the process of monitoring and modification of implementation.
Monitoring of Implementation may identify two types of issues:
These issues include:
- Faulty implementation of some aspects of the Project. For instance, certain prerequisites or co-requisites may not be in place; hardware is there but there is lack of software or trained personnel.
- Improper use of the ICT interventions. Some components of the project are not used as was intended in the Project scenario
- Inadequate satisfaction with the way the Project is implemented. For instance, the users have not been adequately oriented or trained.
The response to this type of issues should focus on improving the process of implementation itself. After improvements, the same type of monitoring instruments should be applied to ensure that these implementation issues have been taken care of.
Sometimes problems of implementation are derived from weaknesses in implemention plans. Monitoring of implementation may reveal faults in areas such as the kind of selected hardware, the type of contentware, the modality of personnel training, the timing of introducing different interventions, the degree of synergy among the different components, the level of risk associated with different plans.
The response to this type of issues requires modifications in the implementation plans to remedy the detected weakness and faults in them. Then implementation proceeds on the basis of the modified plans, and the whole reiterative process of implementation monitoring, improvement and modification will be applied until implementation reaches an adequate and intended level.