ICT in Education Toolkit Version 2.0a
September 2006
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Tool 5.2: Master Plan
1 ICT Intervention Program
2 Integrated Implementation Plan
3 Implementation Cost
4 Implementation Timetable
5 Implementation Management
  Print This Tool

Toolbox 5:
Planning for Implementation: Summation
5.1 Cost & Finance
5.2 Master Plan
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  5. Implementation Management

This Part of the Tool provides a framework for the effective management of the implementation of the above elements of the master plan taking into consideration:

          The prevailing context scope and features of the project, prevailing decision making modalities, experience with innovations, and acceptability of change

          Organizational and institutional parameters

          Change management in terms of extent of acceptability of change, risk assessment, and change facilitation strategies.

To prepare this framework, download the FORM below, use it as a guide for deliberations among Team members and other experts, and then complete it. Save it as "Part 5 - Implementation Management" , then go to the Filing Cabinet and select "Upload documents for Tool " and upload upload the file..

The FORM contains three sections:

          Management Needs

          Organizational Management Framework

          Management of Change

o         Risk  Assessment

o         Strategy for Risk Mitigation and Change Facilitation

Guidelines for applying each section of the FORM

Management Needs

Planning for management of the ICT Program is dependent on the scope and features of the project as well as on the general decision making environment and acceptability for change.

1.       Review the elements of the ICT Program in Part 1 of the Plan and summarize management related issues, by completing the subsection:  Management-Related Issues in ICT Program

2.       On the basis of the content of the ICT Program and the summary of Management-Related Issues in Project, compile the list of Required Implementation Management Personnel for a successful implementation of the Program.

Organizational Management Framework

Find out the present organizational and institutional structure for planning and implementation of ICT projects or project components. To summarize results of review, complete the subsection: Present Structure for Planning and Implementation of ICT Interventions

 If there is an organizational diagram showing where ICT projects are managed, you can scan and upload to Team Bookshelf.

Next outline an organizational framework for the management of the ICT Project, in light of the information summarized in:

  • Management-Related Issues in Project
  • Required Implementation Management Personnel
  • Present Structure for Planning and Implementation of ICT Interventions

The following considerations should be taken into account:

  • The management of the ICT Project should be commensurate with the scale and complexity of the Project
  • The management of the ICT Project should address the different levels of implementation (institutions, geographic areas, and central levels)
  • Effective implementation depends on the existence of a manager/leader who has full authority and responsibility for the Project
  • Depending on the scope of the Project, there should be a management team to support the Manager and represent the different implementation functions identified above.
  • The Implementation Unit should, to the extent possible, correspond to an existing one. If the existing structure is not adequate it is better to improve it rather than bypass it and create a dichotomy that is usually a prescription for continuous tension and conflict.
  • The Manager and Management Team should have access to appropriate decision makers and established lines of communication with other parts of the education system.
  • There should be a smooth transition between the Facilitation Team that is applying this Toolkit and the Management Team.
  • The ideal situation is for the Facilitation Team to be incorporated, fully or partially, into the management structure.
  • The Organizational Management Framework should be discussed and endorsed by other parts of the education sector at central and regional levels.

After necessary deliberations, summarize your proposals by completing the subsection: Organizational Management Framework. This subsection contains items that usually constitute an organizational framework. Some items may not be relevant to this particular situation, and other items nay need to be added.

Management of Change

ICT Interventions are usually innovative inputs into the status quo. They frequently involve change not only in the delivery of educational services but also in the general educational policies and approaches. Many times they create disequilibrium in the prevailing educational culture and practices, which may lead to opposition and resistance of the Project. It is, therefore, important to keep in mind that the management of implementation of an ICT intervention also means the management of change. Unless this notion is recognized early in the process and planned for, the implementation of the Program may be undermined by forces resistant to change. It is also important to note that groups opposed to a particular change are not necessarily "backward" or "conservative" or "irrational." They may be very rational about their opposition, unwilling to take risks with uncertain policies, or unconvinced of the value of the innovation.

Management of change involves:

  • Analysis of prevailing dynamics for change
  • Risk assessment
  • Strategies for facilitation of change

Step 1. Download from FILING CABINET- Tool 1.4 the following files:

  • Dynamics for change at the system level (summary)
  • Dynamics for change at the school level (Summary)

Review these files for prevailing decision making modalities, experience with innovations, and acceptance of change.

Step 2. Make an assessment of the uncertainties associated with the different elements and phases of the Program. No ICT intervention is risk free. The same is true of any ICT-free policy. A decision not to integrate ICTs into education carries a degree of risk with it.

The degree of risk may be attributed to a variety of factors including but not limited to:

  • Uncertainty about the value of an intervention
  • Possible problems with implementability
  • Cultural and social resistance
  • Lack of confidence in the institutions or individuals involved
  • Lack of ability to implement or manage project
  • Uncertainty about the desirability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the affordability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the sustainability of the intervention
  • Uncertainty about the usability of the intervention
  • Doubts about the value-added of the intervention in comparison with the additional costs involved.

The Team should study once again the different elements of the Integrated Implementation Plan, and assess the degree of risk taken with each element in light of the factors cited above. Summarize the results of deliberations by completing subsection: Risk Assessment.

Step 3. Formulate a strategy to mitigate risks and facilitate change in light of the information retrieved or generated in Steps 1 and 2.

An indicative outline of the strategy is provided in subsection: Strategy for Lowering of Risks and Facilitation of Change . Make the necessary changes and additions to it.

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